WHAT IS BULLYING?
“Bullying is overt verbal, physical, or technology-based (“cyber,” text messaging,etc.) aggression that is persistently focused on targeted person(s) over time. This behavior is visible aggression that has escalated from a larger system of low-level or covert normalized aggression that polices the boundaries between “normal”and “different” in a specific social context. Targeted person(s) are victimized because they are perceived to be outside the boundaries of “normal” as culturally defined within a peer group. This aggression is a tool for acquiring higher social status in a peer group because by targeting others as “different,” the aggressor claims a higher position in the social hierarchy and reinforces the social “rules” of acceptability. Peer-to-peer aggression typically replicates structural inequality, and therefore patterns of targeting are likely to reflect systemic marginalization along lines of gender, sex, sexuality, race, (dis)ability, and class. Bullying frequently reinforces gender norms—ideas about “correct” and “normal” masculinity and femininity. Students who are viewed as having non-normative gender (and by extension, sexuality) are frequent targets. Not all aggressive behaviors between students can be termed “bullying”—some are the result of individual conflict or personality differences” (Payne & Smith, 2013).
RESOURCES TO PREVENT BULLYING AND HATE SPEECH/CRIMES
- Read Bullying Basics, published by Teaching Tolerance.
- For resources to prevent bullying, see https://www.stopbullying.gov/prevention/at-school/.
- Free lessons are provided by the National Education Association on Teaching Students to Prevent Bullying.
- Contact the Anti-Defamation League for workshops for students, educators, and families. They also offer resources on bullying-prevention.
- The New York Children's Theater offers workshops for schools on bullying.
- Teaching Tolerance offers the following free guide for teachers, administrations and counselors: Responding to Hate and Bias at School.
- Free lessons are provided for Grades 9-12 on Breaking Down Hate Speech.
- The National Crime Prevention Council offers resources for the prevention of bullying and hate crimes for teens, families, and educators (including lesson plans).
- Read the Souther Poverty Law Center's guide, entitled, Ten Ways to Fight Hate: A Community Response Guide.
bullying under trump
- Read the Southern Poverty Law Center's piece on "The Trump Effect: The Impact of the Presidential Campaign on our Nation's Schools".
- Read Mother Jones article, entitled, "Bullying in Schools is Out of Control Since Election Day."
- Read Emiliy Bazelon's op-ed piece in the New York Times (November, 16, 2016): "Bullying in the Age of Trump."
- Read The Guardian's article: "They are scared: Teachers grapple with fear and bullying after Trump victory.